February 1, 2023

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Why shouldn’t many countries respond to the Russo-Ukrainian war?

Although Joe Biden’s government has repeatedly It communicates that way As for the global consensus on the Russo-Ukrainian war and the condemnation of the Russian occupation, the situation is not really that easy. Although Western Europe and NATO vehemently opposed Putin’s war and retaliated with various sanctions in Africa, Asia and Latin America, many of the so-called global southerners did not really choose one side.

In the first referendum of the UN General Assembly in early March, 141 countries confirmed that Russia should withdraw from Ukraine “immediately, completely and unconditionally,” and in another resolution, 140 countries voted in favor of humanitarian protection for Ukrainians. But when the General Assembly voted to exclude Russia from the Human Rights Council in early April, only 93 countries voted in favor, 58 abstained and 24 abstained. It was attended by former leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement in Egypt, Ghana, India and Indonesia.

Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan and South Africa did not vote in the April referendum, nor did China. The United States, the European Union and NATO have introduced unprecedented sanctions against Russia, but from around the world. Almost no one Signed these. (Restrictions countries only They make up 16 percent of the world’s population.)

A Vox He writes about itAnalysts say the situation is reminiscent of the Cold War, with many countries returning to known responses from the Cold War, and the Non-Aligned Movement seems to be reviving. This movement is not about neutrality, but about uniting developing countries that have fallen between the two powers.

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A similar platform has not yet been created for the conditions of the 21st century, but as most of the world’s population lives in the southern hemisphere, the Russian-Ukrainian war could escalate tensions between the world’s two major powers, forming an alliance.

On February 22, the UN Security Council convened in Kenya. In his speech, the ambassador strongly supported Ukraine, comparing the Russian war to the occupation of the colonial period. “Kenya and almost all African countries were born at the end of empires. We did not draw our own borders,” Martin Kimani said.

But less attention has been paid to Kenya’s presence in April, when Russia was expelled from the Human Rights Council. “Look there before something jumps! That fact must be taken into account. ” Kenya’s presence is a prime example of the subtle, compromising behavior exemplified in the Arab world of the Middle East and South and Southeast Asia.

According to Vox, there are four main reasons why southern countries around the world avoid open resolution.

1. Economic interest

Russia is the largest exporter of energy, food and fertilizer, so many countries can not sever economic ties with Moscow. India is dependent on Russia for arms sales, and even more important is the fact that the finance ministers of Ghana and Nigeria are not paying enough attention to the economic consequences of the war, even though Russian investment in Latin American countries is not very important.

2. They do not trust the United States

The U.S. invasion of Iraq has violated international law, and many countries have similarly failed other Western regime change efforts in Afghanistan and Libya.

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This suspicion extends to obstacles. Latin American countries are vulnerable to sovereignty violations, and 28 of the 34 countries in the Organization of American States (OAS) voted in favor of condemnation at the UN in March, but sanctions against Russia have not been ratified by the UN. Leaders of Mexico and Brazil also spoke out against them, and the Bahamas was the only OAS country to sign sanctions.

Guilloom Long, a former Ecuadorian foreign minister, told the newspaper: “Many Latin Americans feel and believe that sanctions are being used in a selective, politicized way, by double standards – essentially as a means to American supremacy over global justice.” He cited US sanctions against Cuba and the Venezuelan people as examples.

This is not just the result of the unilateral decisions of the United States following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. In many developing countries the Cold War was not so cold, and African nations learned that in an international conflict they could turn into an uncontrollable infantry, with little benefit and great danger.

3. Unity with Russia

The third factor, considering the anti-colonial-Soviet nature of the Soviet Union, is the lasting solidarity of the more left-wing governments with Russia. The South African National Congress (ANC) was particularly close to the Soviet Union because of its anti-apartheid stance (although South Africa also had good relations with Ukraine, when Odessa was part of the Soviet Union, the ANC held training camps there).

Recently, Putin made a spectacular return to the South of the world. Mark Neiman, a political scientist at the University of Toronto, says US foreign policy has long ignored the concerns of the global South or completely violated international law.

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4. Wait

Each country has chosen different tactics: China is its own Complex and sometimes conflicting interests Continuing Indonesia Waiting, India Proceed carefully Among the superpowers, Saudi Arabia is looking for an escape. What if Russia defeats Ukraine? Russia is a major power in the international arena, especially in the United Nations. If a Latin American country tries to get votes in the UN, it can get Russia’s support in 50 percent of cases, but Ukraine is guaranteed to vote alongside the United States.

Will the non-aligned return with the Cold War?

At the 1955 Bandung meeting, Indonesia’s first president, – A. Then thrown away – Sukarno said that despite the lack of military power in the southern countries of the world, they can stand together for peace. This movement did not represent a departure from neutrality or global affairs, but promoted transnational cultural cooperation and the spread of revolutionary ideas in the Third World, encouraging political movements and activists. During the Cold War, the non-aligned movement became so strong that it put issues such as the struggle against apartheid or the situation of the Palestinians on the global agenda.

Sukarno, Indonesia’s first president, was ousted from 1945 until 1966

Photo: AFP

The organization was founded by four leaders during the Berlin Wall in Belgrade in 1961: Indonesia’s first president Sukarno, India’s first prime minister Javanharlal Nehru, Egypt’s second president, Kamal Upton-Nasser, and the first president of Yugoslavia, Joseph Pros Tito. All four are known to be in the “middle ground” for pulling the most backward countries out of the Cold War between the Western and Eastern camps.

Not all of them are Democrats, but because of their popularity, they were able to make a big impact and their descendants could not keep the divided countries together. Yet to this day the non-aligned movement has not rested. Former US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said in 2006 that she did not understand what these countries were not doing.

Although the leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement of the 1960s were seen as representing the will of developing countries fighting imperialism and colonialism, many of the countries that now take a neutral position are falling into tyranny, with India and Egypt receiving billions of dollars in the United States. Vox argues that with weapons every year, a renaissance movement may find it difficult to develop a coherent philosophy and identity.

The Russian invasion of Ukraine is a clear example of a great power violating the sovereignty and rights of a small country and draws attention to the essential elements of a sense of commitment. But the movement was mentioned even before the war. Analysts say longtime Latin American countries are reluctant to choose a side in the new Cold War between the United States and China because China now has a strong presence in Latin America.

Democracy and stumbling

Since Biden portrayed the war in Ukraine as a struggle between democracy and dictatorship, the situation has become even more confusing, especially since Biden could soon travel to Saudi Arabia, not in the form of democracy. With a democratic-authoritarian structure, Biden puts the world ahead of elections, but the United States may alienate many countries, inadvertently encouraging the creation of a new, non-aligned coalition.

Meeting between Senegalese President Mackie Sal and Russian President Vladimir Putin on June 3

Photo: Michael Clementev / AFP

However, not wanting to choose one side does not mean ending the conflict: the African Union wants to play a mediating role in Ukraine, and the current, Senegalese leader, Maggie Saul, went to Putin last week, with Emmanuel Macron as a guest for a week. (Vox)