November 27, 2022

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The son of the index – domestic – macho merchant created the modern American newspaper

Joseph Pulitzer was born on April 10, 1847, in Mago into a wealthy Jewish family. His father, Philip Pulitzer’s grain merchant and his mother, Elise Berger, were heirs to the military officer dynasty. The couple’s happiness, on the other hand, was overshadowed by the fact that only four of their eight children enjoyed childhood. The family migrated to Insect in 1855, where the father became a member of the local trade and industry. The business started well in the first year with ninety thousand sales. But the tragedy did not escape the family: in 1856, Joseph’s two brothers died unexpectedly, and in 1858 his father died of tuberculosis. After that, her mother alone could no longer continue the business, she broke up and she had to mortgage everything. After abject poverty and the remarriage of Mrs. Pulitzer, Joseph decided to pursue the path of independence.

On the edge of the house

At the age of seventeen, against the wishes of his mother, he left the country in 1864. He first traveled to Vienna and then to Paris. Following in his mother’s footsteps, he chose a military career.

But military life did not choose him,

Because of his dangerous health and poor eyesight it was not needed by the Austrian or English colonial army or the French foreign army. Since he was recruited to the New York Cavalry by a recruitment agency in Hamburg, a series of failures did not motivate him, although he could only move to the United States to work as a boiler heater on board due to lack of money.

During the American Civil War, he was listed as a soldier during the campaign against the people of the South. On the battlefield, he removed those who had died of cholera. Even so, he was one of the first to receive the Oppsite. In 1865, he moved to New York as an unarmed soldier. In early 1866, he sailed for St. Louis on a freight train, where he carried out various occupations: he was a waiter, graveyard keeper, donkey nurse, porter and whale. At the same time he does not have enough endurance to do physical labor

So, it is not surprising that he often changed jobs, while at the same time being pushed homeless.

From St. Louis to New York

In the United States, a German-language newspaper brought a turning point in his life. He was offended by St. Louis because he still did not speak English To the Westlich Post. The magazine’s editor, Carl Schures, is said to have liked him while playing chess and offered him a job. Soon, readers also fell in love with his colorful, intriguing writing. He bought shares of the newspaper from his income until he became the owner of the newspaper. Joseph’s life was straight. He became a U.S. citizen in 1869 and was soon elected to the Missouri State Congress.

All that is known about St. Louis is XIX. It was still the fourth largest city in the United States in the 1970s, surpassing only New York, Brooklyn and Philadelphia in population, but not Chicago or Washington. Joseph gradually bought and assembled the newspapers of the great city, and by 1878 he could be proud. Post sending The most read newspaper in the area. By 1882, the number of copies used was over twenty thousand.

Joseph was not happy about it because he wanted to know not only the most read newspaper in the area, but also in the United States. With this in mind, he moved his headquarters to New York in 1883: he bought it The world The newspaper, which – its competitors, etc. HedgehogD, A Heraldot and a TimesWith separate evening and Sunday editions, it was created as a high-income company with both power and political power. The world The number of copies has increased from fifteen thousand to six lakh in a decade and has become the largest newspaper in the country. Meanwhile, he kept his card in St. Louis. (Interestingly, at the same time The world Disappeared forever from the scene in the 1930s, a Post sending Still exists today.)

Joseph A. The world He reached the pinnacle of his personal life with the purchase. He married Kate Davis, daughter of a wealthy American family, and built a house in one of New York’s high neighborhoods, where he entertained Mihali Munkasi, who was asked to paint a picture of his wife. This painting was finally made in 1891 based on a photograph in Paris.

Newspaper King’s health deteriorated due to various occupations: he was suffering from depression and was blind to being sensitive to loud noises, so he had to go abroad several times for medical treatment. He was separated from his wife and five children for most of his life.

Psychiatric Hospital, Comics, Panama

Americans still respect Joseph Pulitzer, the father of modern newspaper writing, he testified:

The main purpose of the news industry is not only communication but also public service.

Accuracy, reliability and freedom were the guiding principles both materially and politically. He argued that the greatest moral force in the world was the people and that there could be no real democracy without an independent press. According to one of his most famous sayings

The message is sacred, the comment is free.

He mentioned the features of newspaper editing and journalism as follows:

His light will guide everyone wisely – concisely, clearly, thoughtfully, visibly, reliably.

There are countless innovations in its name. In 1887, he signed, for example Nelly Fly Pretending to be insane to enter the Blackwell Island Women’s Psychiatric Hospital, the journalist who witnessed the violence there has written a series of hugely successful articles. His big throw is mass-printed, colorful comic. When the Panama Canal was being built, a Word Who began to lament that they had received large bribes. The Panaming This comes from the story. The government sued.

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He too went to the other side of the horse. He sometimes fought with the Hearst Empire in unjust ways, and such a classic race led to the “Yellow Press”. Hence the name

The sheets were printed on striking yellow paper for better marketing.

The two principals hunted down sentiments, presented each other with price and quality, and were considered by many to have played a decisive role in the outbreak of the 1898 Spanish-American War.

Journalism is not just an industry

In May 1904, he wrote his religion in support of the establishment of a journalism school:

Our Republic and the press will rise or fall together. Efficient, uninteresting, public service newspapers, with trained intelligence, know what is right and can boldly defend the interests of the people, without which the government of the people is a lie and a sham. Cynical, mercenary, rhetorical magazines will, over time, produce inferior people like themselves. The power to build the future of the Republic will be in the hands of future generations.

At his behest, he left $ 2 million to organize the faculty of journalism at Columbia University in New York because he saw journalism not only as a profession, but as a profession. Every year since 1917, the Pulitzer Prizes, the highest and most prestigious awards for journalists, are distributed for the benefit of the foundation he founded.

(Cover image: Joseph Pulitzer. Photo: Wikipedia)