In recent weeks, leaders of European powers have been alternately resolving the Ukrainian-Russian conflict through diplomacy in Moscow. Vladimir Putin proposes Ukraine solution to French President Emmanuel Macron By finishing Will go. But what is postmodernization?
The term Finnishization refers to Finland’s neutrality during the Cold War, although the Nordic country, along with Sweden, was a member of the European Union and did not join NATO, although most people now support the system. Link.
Finland was in a very unique situation during World War II. In 1939, after General Mannarheim refused to line up with the Baltic states, the Soviet Union launched an invasion against them, which “spontaneously” joined the Soviet Union. In the Molotov-Ribbentrop Treaty, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union divided Central and Eastern Europe into spheres of interest.
According to the treaty, the western part of Poland (including Warsaw) came under German rule in Czechoslovakia, the eastern part of Poland, Bessarabia, then part of Romania, the Baltic states and Finland into the Soviet Union. Thus, Stalin realized his plan to expand the boundaries of his empire into areas ruled by former Tsarist Russia.
Despite Finland’s defeat in the Winter War,
But he was able to maintain his independence and inflicted heavy losses on the Soviet army.
The Soviet Union captured a significant portion of Viborg and Karelia. Thus St. Petersburg (then Leningrad) ended with a sigh of relief.
At the same time, Finland was involved in launching Operation Barbarossa and regaining most of its lost territory. Moreover, Finnish troops took part in the siege of Leningrad on the German side. Mannarheim And Hitler met many times, and the Finnish marshal was one of the few who praised the Nazi dictator.
However, the battlefields changed and Soviet troops marched against the Finns in addition to the Germans, but they avoided occupying the country. In 1944, Finland made peace with the Soviets, which led to the annexation of additional territories and the loss of access to the sea by the Finns Parents. Coincidentally, Finland, a post-war loser, had to pay compensation to Germany, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria.
The first step in Finnishization was the 1948 Treaty with the Soviet Union
Finland agreed not to join NATO, but instead did not have to join the Warsaw Pact.
In practice, although the Finns were able to maintain their territorial integrity and independence, the Soviet Union made a significant impact on Nordic politics.
Urho Kekonen, President of Finland during most of the Cold War, had a very close relationship with members of the Kremlin. It used it for its own political endeavors and to create repetitive corruption networks beyond its constitutional framework.
However, despite the Soviet influence winning the second or third highest number of votes in five consecutive elections between 1966 and 1987, the largest conservative party, the National Alliance, was never included in the ruling coalition.
In addition, the Finnish media repeatedly conducted self-censorship when important issues related to the Soviets arose.
In 1974, he was pressured not to publish the Finnish translation of Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag archipelago.
That’s years later.
Soviet influence also manifested itself in foreign policy. Finland joined the European Economic Community in 1972, but joined the CMEA in 1973. In addition, Finnish leaders generally did not issue public statements about events in Hungary in 1956, the Prague Spring in 1968, or the invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, these barriers disappeared. Finland joined NATO’s Partnership Program for Peace in 1994 and became a member of the European Union in 1995. The Ukrainian-Russian conflict is pushing today’s Finnish leaders closer and closer to Western powers, which could even lead to NATO access. For example, in December 2021, the Finns They bought F35 fighter jets From the Americans.
Vladimir Putin’s primary target for Ukraine was what the Soviet leadership once had with Finland:
Prevents the country from joining NATO.
At the same time, it will undermine Ukrainian sovereignty, which no Ukrainian politician can afford, especially after nationalist sentiments – It didn’t even leave the country’s Eurovision start-up singer – Increasingly emerges as a result of the nation-building of Ukraine from the events of 2014.
In recent days, however, there have been reports that Western powers are trying to persuade Ukraine to abandon NATO membership in the short and medium term. In addition to the West Probably It will not be a major conflict for Ukraine, and Russia is not strong enough to bring power to Kiev. Although Ukraine’s constitution covers the achievements of NATO members, in the future, the country’s financialization may be a viable option.
(Cover image: Ukrainian soldiers on February 17, 2022 near Novolukansky. Photo: Anatoly STEPANOV / AFP)